Jarosz, Maria (2015) Exclusion from life. „Profilaktyka Społeczna i Resocjalizacja” 26: 59-86.
There are several types of social exclusion which describe the fact of living on the margin of the society. Social exclusion process is shaped by the position in the social structure, past life experiences and expectations, and relates also to exclusion from life - the most dramatic of all, and manifested by suicide. For a sociologist (since the time of Emile Durkheim) this is the best measure of social integration and the condition of the society itself. The analysis of suicide tendencies in 1951–2013 shows a systematic increase (by 400%), except for 1981 and the transition of 1989–1990, when there was a drop by 1/3. Undoubtedly, this drop was due to hopes brought by the Solidarity movement and the political transition in the country. In the 1990s, suicide ratios were generally stable, with some slight increases. Since 2009, there has been a sharp growth: from around 5,000 to 6,000 cases per year. Gender disparities are most striking here. Poland is the only country in the world where the female/male suicide ratio is one to six. This data gives rise to the assumption that Poland is the country of strong women and ever weaker men.
marginalization, exclusion, suicide